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Anton Paar has once again redefined digital density measurement with the groundbreaking invention of a new measuring principle: Honey, hand cream, toothpaste, sweet jelly, grease bitumen and candle wax: Aetm on their physical behavior, all materials can be placed on a scale from highly viscous to semi-solid and solid. Consistency measurement is used to determine the degree to which a material resists deformation by an applied force.
This article presents the basic principles of consistency determination with a penetrometer. Consistency describes the degree to which a semi-fluid or semi-solid material resists deformation by an applied force. The inner structure is characteristic for each material and can be influenced by outside forces as well as the ambient conditions.
What is an inner structure? Anything that is dissolved or dispersed in a material contributes to its inner structure. This can be solvent molecules, more c937 polymeric d37, small particles, gas bubbles, etc. The ambient condition that influences the consistency most is the temperature.
ASTM D Standard
Substances we encounter, within the fluid or solid state of matter, can be described according to their consistency, see Figure 1. A semi-fluid or solid material needs a certain mechanical stress at which it begins to deform elastically or plastically.
The point of plastic deformation is called the yield point. Prior to the yield point the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied mechanical stress is removed. Once the yield point d97 passed, a fraction of the deformation will be permanent and nonreversible. Typical semi-fluid and semi-solid samples are butter, grease, ointment, and petrolatum. A fluid liquid has no such d37 point. We come across consistency all the time in everyday life without even thinking about it.
Examples which illustrate the importance of consistency measurement are given in section 4. A simple method to determine the consistency of different products is by means of a penetrometer.
A typical example of consistency determination is the penetration measurement of grease. The result is the depth, in tenths of a millimeter Penetration Unit, PUat which the cone sinks into the grease and this expresses the consistency. High penetration values indicate softer materials. The deeper the cone sinks into the material, the softer the sample and the lower the consistency.
Grease penetration measurement .
Koehler K19500 Penetrometer
atsm A penetrometer is very versatile and a lot of different penetration bodies can be used with this instrument, depending on aatm consistency of the sample. The general rule for test kit selection is: The harder more solid the material, the smaller the cone angle should be.
Therefore, a needle is used for bitumen and a perforated disk penetrator is used for liquid-like samples. The consistency of semi-solid and solid bituminous materials is tested up to Penetration Units PU. Penetration is the basic value for the bitumen classification systems worldwide. Using d397 value, conclusions can be drawn about the performance of bitumen as a binder for road construction. This helps when selecting the bitumen binder best suited to the climatic conditions of the respective region.
Typical negative consequences of neglecting the consistency are:.
ASTM D – 07() – Standard Test Method for Cone Penetration of Petrolatum
The behavior of the bitumen in the medium temperature range can be assessed by means of the penetration test. The value is obtained by calculation from needle penetration and the ring-and-ball softening point using a softening point tester. The consistency of grease from almost fluid to semi-fluid to hard can be measured in a range up to Penetration Units.
The penetration value ensures the adequate feeding of the friction area; the long-term performance of mechanical elements depends heavily on the selection of the right grease according to the penetration class. Hard grease will not work properly for a bearing that needs to be lubricated as it will not adequately grease the whole contact area. In case of central lubrication systems, the penetration is used for the observation of the pumpability of fluid grease. A penetration of would represent solid grease, while a penetration of would mean that the sample is fluid.
Additionally, a grease worker is necessary for the grease sample preparation. The treatment in a grease worker exposes the sample to high mechanical stress in a comparatively short time. The penetration is measured before and after applying many double strokes up to 1, of a perforated plate in the greased-filled cup placed in the working machine.
A high difference of the values stands for low shear stability, which indicates a poor performance of the grease in practice. If the consistency of grease becomes too low because of the shear stress in the mechanical aggregateit may leak away from the area to be lubricated and parts will run dry; friction and wear will increase on the contact area. Waxes differ in consistency. The consistency can have a significant effect on ashm physical properties.
A brief presentation of the globally used D93 test is given below:.
Consistency determination of pharmaceutical products and cosmeticssuch as ointment and creams, but also semi-liquid and semi-solid materials, is performed using methods of to the European Pharmacopoeia 2. It describes the appearance, feel, or consistency of a surface or the food itself mouthfeel.
The penetration test provides information on the texture. Consistency gives food the typical mouthfeel that is experienced when it is swallowed. The sensory expectations of the customer have to be fulfilled.
A good spreadability of butter, margarine, cheese, honey, and other food must be ensured. However, if a substance is too liquid it may run off the bread slice. If the consistency of ketchup is not optimal, it will not flow out of the bottle easily. Due to its easy handling, the penetration method is employed in a wide scope of applications for food. Conclusions concerning the following astj be drawn from the penetration value:.
The NLGI system see point 4. A lot of different penetration test kits are used for chemical products such as adhesives, sealants, and glue pastes.
Especially for the evaluation of processes such as kneading, pumping, mixing, filling, and brushing, it is essential to ast, the energy balance by adjusting the consistency. The penetration test is used for adjusting the right consistency:.
Consistency measurement with a penetrometer provides information about the texture of semi-solid materials with astj effort. The simple rheology concept of the device, short measurement time, and aatm good repeatability of the results open up a wide application field. Density Redefined Anton Paar has once s937 redefined digital density measurement with the groundbreaking invention of a new measuring principle: Definition of consistency Consistency describes the degree to which a semi-fluid or semi-solid material resists deformation by an applied force.
A typical device which is used for the determination of consistency is a penetrometer. Difference between fluid, semi-solid, and solid materials Fig. Samples in a row from fluid left d9337 solid right. Asttm measurement with a penetrometer How does a penetrometer work?
Penetrometer with hollow cone. Typical applications for penetration testing Bitumen The consistency of semi-solid and solid bituminous materials is tested up to Penetration Units PU. Typical negative consequences of neglecting the consistency are: Hard bitumen consistency under cold climatic conditions generates fatigue cracks on the road surface and in cold coatings; the material becomes more brittle.
Soft bitumen consistency under warm climatic conditions causes ruts on the road and bitumen to drop off roof shingles because of an insufficient atsm of the bitumen binder. Bitumen testing in a water bath.
Grease and petrolatum The consistency of grease from almost fluid to semi-fluid to hard can be measured in a range up to Penetration Units. A brief presentation of the globally used ASTM test is given below: Cool the container down to ambient temperature Place the water-covered container water level at least 25 mm above the sample container surface on the penetrometer table.
Adjust the tip of the needle so that it is just touching the sample surface. Release the load for five seconds and read the penetration distance. Record the average of four penetrations on the sample in the container as a single test result. Pharmacy and cosmetics Fig. Micro-cone set; cup assembled. According to the European Pharmacopoeia Method 2. Conclusions concerning the following can be drawn from the penetration value: Further materials A lot of different penetration test kits are used for chemical products such as adhesives, sealants, and glue pastes.